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Star Products Co., Ltd.

Unit A, 7/F  Kader Building

22 Kai Cheung Road

Kowloon Bay, Hong Kong

Tel: +852-3563-6100   Fax: +852-3563-6110

The Rose Water, The Rose Tea, and ZBlossom's Splendid Tea are sold exclusively through Elim Development Ltd.; Shops are located in Admiralty,  Jordan, and Shatin.

Hong Kong 

Please contact Ms. Iris Lo at +852-3563-6100 or e-mail at ilo@starproducts.com.hk

 Japan

On Japan related issues, please contact Kenneth Zee at +852-5199-8000 (HK), +81-80-3019-8168 (Japan) or e-mail at kmzee@starproducts.com.hk

China

Please contact Aaron Huang at +86-133-9633-8676 or e-mail at huangqinghe@starproducts.com.hk

We are what we repeatedly do; excellence, then, is not an act but a habit.
—Aristotle
 

Besides our Rose Tea, we have added another wonderful product in our product line - "ZBlossom's Splendid Tea."

AASHTO

American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials.

Absolute Viscosity

A measure of the viscosity of asphalt with respect to time, measured in poises, conducted at 60°C (140°F). The test method utilizes a partial vacuum to induce flow in the viscometer. (1)

ADT or AADT

Average Daily Traffic.

Aggregate

A hard inert mineral material, such as gravel, crushed rock, slag, or crushed stone, used in pavement applications either by itself or for mixing with asphalt. (1)

Air Voids

Internal spaces in a compacted mix surrounded by asphalt-coated particles, expressed as a percentage by volume of the total compacted mix. (1)

Apparent Specific Gravity Of Asphalt Mixture

A ratio of the unit weight of an asphalt mixture (excluding voids permeable to water) to the unit weight of water.

Asphalt (asphalt cement)

A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens, which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing. Asphalt is a constituent in varying proportions of most crude petroleum and used for paving, roofing, industrial and other special purposes. (1)

Asphalt Binder

Asphalt cement that is classified according to the Standard Specification for Performance Graded Asphalt Binder, AASHTO Designation MP1. It can be either unmodified or modified asphalt cement, as long as it complies with the specifications. (1)

Asphalt Concrete

A mixture of asphalt binder and aggregate thoroughly mixed and compacted into a mass. (1)

Asphalt Emulsion

An emulsion of asphalt binder and water that contains a small amount of an emulsifying agent. Emulsified asphalt droplets may be of either the anionic (negative charge), cationic (positive charge) or nonionic (neutral). (1)

 inner growth training is designed as a process that is intended to help you master your inner self, improve inner strength and inner motivation. Each participant has objectives which will constitute their individual experience. The inner growth training is your opportunity to define your vision and set clear, measurable goals, address any obstacles, heal and complete past incidents, and launch the rest of your life.

 

Asphalt Leveling Course

A course of hot mix asphalt of variable thickness used to eliminate irregularities in the contour of an existing surface prior to placing the subsequent course. (1)

Asphalt Pavement Structure

A pavement structure that is designed and constructed so that all courses above the subgrade are asphalt concrete (Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement). (1)

Asphalt Pavements

Pavements consisting of a surface course of asphalt concrete over supporting courses such as asphalt concrete bases, crushed stone, slag, gravel, Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), brick, or block pavement. (1)

Asphalt Prime Coat

An application of asphalt primer to an absorbent surface. It is used to prepare an untreated base for an asphalt surface. The prime penetrates or is mixed into the surface of the base and plugs the voids, hardens the top and helps bind it to the overlying asphalt course. (1)

An application of asphalt primer to an absorbent surface. It is used to prepare an untreated base for an asphalt surface. The prime penetrates or is mixed into the surface of the base and plugs the voids, hardens the top and helps bind it to the overlying asphalt course. (1)

 

Base Course

The layer in the pavement system immediately below the binder and surface courses. It usually consists of crushed stone, although it may consist of crushed slag or other stabilized or unstabilized material. (1)

Binder Course

The hot mix asphalt course immediately below the surface course, generally consisting of larger aggregates and less asphalt (by weight) than the surface. (1)

Bitumen

A class of black or dark-colored (solid, semisolid, or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches, and asphaltites are typical. (1)

Borrow

Suitable material from sources outside the roadway prism used primarily for embankments. (1)

Bulk Specific Gravity Of Asphalt Mixture

Ratio of the unit weight of an asphalt mixture (including permeable and impermeable voids) to the unit weight of water.

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

A test used for evaluating bases, subbases, and subgrades for pavement thickness design it is a relative measure of the shear resistance of a soil (see Soils Manual, MS-10). CBR = load required to force a calibrated piston into a soil specimen / load required to force a like piston into a crushed stone specimen capacity and ride quality of the pavement system. (1)

Cement treated base

A base layer constructed with good quality, well-graded aggregate mixed with up to 6% cement.

Channels (Ruts)

Channeled depressions that sometimes develop in the wheel paths of an asphalt pavement. (1)

Coarse Aggregate

Aggregate retained on the 2.36 mm (No. 8) sieve. (1)

Compaction

The act of compressing a given volume of material into a smaller volume. (1)

Dense-Graded Aggregate

An aggregate that has a particle size distribution such that when it is compacted, the resulting voids between the aggregate particles, expressed as a percentage of the total space occupied by the material, are less than 10%. (1)

Design ESAL

The total number of equivalent 80-kN (18,000-lb.), single-axle load applications (equivalent single axle loads) expected throughout the design period. (1)

Design Lane

The lane on which the greatest number of equivalent 80-kN (18,000-lb.) single axle loads (ESAL) is expected. This will normally be either lane of a two-lane roadway or the outside lane of a multi-lane highway. (1)

Design Period

The number of years from the initial application of traffic until the first planned major resurfacing or overlay. This term should not be confused with pavement life or analysis period. Adding hot mix asphalt overlays as required will extend pavement life indefinitely or until geometric considerations (or other factors) make the pavement obsolete. (1)

Design Subgrade Resilient Modulus

The value of the Subgrade Resilient Modulus (MR) used for designing the pavement structure. It is a percentile value of the subgrade resilient modulus test data distribution that varies with design ESAL. (1)

Durability

The property of an asphalt pavement that represents its ability to resist disintegration by weathering and traffic. (1)

Effective specific gravity of an asphalt mixture

Ratio of the unit weight of an asphalt mixture (excluding voids permeable to asphalt) to the unit weight of water.

Emulsion

A mixture of asphalt cement with water. Asphalt emulsions are produced by adding a small amount of emulsifying soap to asphalt and water. The asphalt sets when the water evaporates.

ESAL

Equivalent Single Axle Load. A unit used to quantify various types of axle loadings into a single design number for pavement design. Defined as one 18,000 pound four-tire dual axle load.Fine Aggregate

Aggregate passing the 2.36 mm (No. 8) sieve. (1)

Fine-Graded Aggregate

One having a continuous grading in sizes of particles from coarse through fine with a predominance of fine sizes. (1)

Flexible Pavement

A pavement structure that maintains intimate contact with and distributes loads to the subgrade and depends on aggregate interlock, particle friction, and cohesion for stability. HMA pavements are flexible pavements; PCC concrete is not. (2)

Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement

The term FULL-DEPTH (registered by the Asphalt Institute with the U.S. Patent Office) certifies that the pavement is one in which asphalt mixtures are employed for all courses above the subgrade or improved subgrade. A Full-Depth asphalt pavement is placed directly on the prepared subgrade. (1)

Geotextiles

Fabric-like materials used in some pavement construction applications. Uses include stabilization of base materials to prevent migration into subgrades. (2)

Granular Borrow

Granular Material used to replace undesirable materials in the grade for a pavement. (2)

Granular Equivalent (GE)

Equates the thickness of each aggregate, hot mix asphalt, or other material to an equivalent thickness of Class 5 granular base material. Used for the Soil Factor and R-Value pavement thickness design procedures.

Heavy Trucks

Two-axle, six-tire trucks or larger. Pickup, panel and light four-tire trucks are not included. Trucks with heavy-duty, wide-base tires are included. (1)

Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

High quality, thoroughly controlled hot mixture of asphalt binder (cement) and well-graded, high quality aggregate, which can be compacted into a uniform dense mass. (2)

In Situ

In place, or in it’s original location. (2)

JMF

Job-mix formula. A recommended/approved proportion of aggregate & asphalt used for field Quality Control/Quality Assurance of HMA mixture production. (2)

Lift

A layer or course of paving material applied to a base or a previous layer. (1)

Load Equivalency Factor (LEF)

The number of 80-kN (18,000-lb.) single-axle load applications (ESAL) contributed by one passage of an axle. (1)

MST

Moisture Sensitivity Test. Also known as TSR or Modified Lottman. This test attempts to predict whether a mixture is susceptible to stripping. It compares wet strength to dry strength, and identifies adhesion and cohesion problems.

Non-Wearing Course (NW)

Non-wearing course is typically the bituminous mixture below the wearing course or driving surface. Non-wear mixtures include base, level and binder courses. In Superpave (Gyrarory) design, non-wearing course is defined as mixture below the top four inches of pavement. Local governments can modify the Superpave (Gyrarory) definition to define non-wear as mixture below the top three inches of pavement.

Open-Graded Aggregate

One containing less-fine aggregate in which the void spaces in the compacted aggregate are relatively large and interconnected, usually 10% more. (1)

Optimum Moisture Content

In a soil, the moisture content at which maximum density can be achieved. (2)

Pavement Base

The lower or underlying pavement course atop the subbase or subgrade and under the top or wearing course. (1)

Pavement Structure

The entire pavement system of selected materials from subgrade to the surface. (1)

Penetration Grading

A classification system of asphalt cements based on penetration in 0.1 mm at 25°C (77°F). There are five standard penetration grades for paving: 40-50, 60-70, 85-100, 120-150, and 200-300. (1)

Penetration

The consistency of a bituminous material expressed as the distance (in tenths of a millimeter) that a standard needle penetrates a sample vertically under specified conditions of loading, time and temperature. (1)

Performance Graded (PG)

Asphalt binder grade designation used in Superpave. It is based on the binder's mechanical performance at critical temperatures and aging conditions. (1)

Permeability

A measure of the rate or volume of flow of water through a soil or other material including HMA.(2)

Plant Mix

An asphalt concrete mixture that is not prepared at the paving site. Resilient Modulus: May be referred to as modulus of elasticity. It is not the same as the modulus of subgrade reaction, k although the two are related. For positive values of the resilient modulus, MR » k x 19.4. The resilient modulus is also approximately equal to 1500 times the California Bearing Ratio (CBR).

Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

Excavated asphalt pavement that has been pulverized, usually by milling, and is used like an aggregate in the recycling of asphalt pavements. (1)

Recycled Asphalt Mix

A mixture produced after processing existing asphalt pavement materials. The recycled mix may be produced by hot or cold mixing at a plant, or by processing the materials cold and in-place. (1)

Resilient Modulus of Elasticity (MR)

A laboratory measurement of the behavior of pavement materials to characterize their stiffness and resiliency (seeSoils Manual, MS-10). A confined or unconfined test specimen (core or recompacted) is repeatedly loaded and unloaded at a prescribed rate. The resilient modulus is a function of load duration, load frequency, and number of loading cycles. (2)

Resistance Value (R-value)

A test for evaluating bases, subbases, and subgrades for pavement thickness design. (1)

Sand

Fine aggregate (any fraction below a No. 8 sieve) resulting from natural disintegration and abrasion or processing of rock. (1)

Saw And Seal

Saw and seal involves sawing newly placed bituminous pavement to control thermal cracking.

SealCoat

A thin surface treatment used to improve the surface texture and protect an asphalt surface. The main types of seal coats are fog seals, sand seals, slurry seals, micro-surfacing, cape seals, sandwich seals and chip seals. (1)

Select Material

Suitable material obtained from roadway cuts, borrow areas, or commercial sources and designated or reserved for use as foundation for the subbase, for subbase material, shoulder surfacing, or other specific purposes. (2)

Sieve

An apparatus for laboratory work in which the openings in the mesh are square for separating sizes of material. (1)

Soil/Cement Base

A hardened material formed by curing a mechanically mixed and compacted mixture of pulverized soil, portland cement and water used as a layer in a pavement system to reinforce and protect the subgrade or subbase. (1)

Source Properties

Aggregate characteristics that must follow certain criteria to satisfy a Superpave mix design. Specified values are established by local agencies. They include Toughness, Soundness, and Deleterious Materials. (1)

Special Provisions

Special directions, provisions, or requirements peculiar to the project under consideration and not otherwise thoroughly or satisfactorily detailed or set forth in the specifications. Special provisions set forth the final contractual intent in the matter involved. (2)

Subbase

A layer of aggregate of planned thickness and quality placed on the existing soil as a foundation for the base. Subgrade: The portion of a roadbed surface that has been prepared as specified, upon which a subbase, base, base course, or pavement is to be constructed.

Subgrade

The soil prepared to support a pavement structure or a pavement system. It is the foundation of the pavement structure. (1)

Subgrade Stabilization

Modification of roadbed soils by admixing with stabilizing or chemical agents that will increase loadbearing capacity, firmness, and resistance to weathering or displacement. (2)

Superpave®

Short for "SUperior PERforming Asphalt PAVEment" a performance-based system for selecting and specifying asphalt binders and for designing asphalt mixtures. (1)

Superpave® Gyratory Compactor (SGC)

A device used during Superpave® mix design or quality control activities for compacting samples of hot mix asphalt into specimens used for volumetric analysis. Continuous densification of the specimen is measured during the compaction process. (1)

Superpave® Mix Design

An asphalt mixture design system that integrates the selection of materials (asphalt, aggregate) and volumetric proportioning with the project's climate and design traffic. (1)

Tack coat

The initial application of asphalt material to an existing asphalt or concrete surface to provide bond between the existing surface and the new material.

Total Voids In An Asphalt Mixture

Total volume of air in the asphalt mixture.

Truck Factor

The number of ESALs contributed by one passage of a vehicle. Truck Factors can apply to vehicles of a single type or class or to a group of vehicles of different types. (1)

Viscosity Grading

A classification system of asphalt cements based on viscosity ranges at 60°C (140°F). A minimum viscosity at 135°C (275°F) is also usually specified. The purpose is to prescribe limiting values of consistency at these two temperatures. 60°C (140°F) approximates the maximum temperature of an asphalt pavement surface in service in the U.S. 135°C (275°F) approximates the mixing and laydown temperatures for hot mix asphalt pavements. (1)

Viscosity

A measure of a liquid's resistance to flow with respect to time. (1)

VMA

Voids in Mineral Aggregate. Measure of unabsorbed asphalt and air voids.

Voids filled with asphalt

The portion of the voids in mineral aggregate of an asphalt mixture that excludes the air voids, as well as the asphalt absorbed by the aggregate.

Wearing Course (WE)

Wearing course is typically the bituminous mixture used for the driving surface. In Superpave® (Gyratory) design, wearing course is defined as mixture within four inches of the surface. Local governments can modify the Superpave® (Gyrarory) definition to define as mixture within three inches of the surface.

Well-Graded Aggregate

Aggregate graded with relatively uniform proportions, from the maximum size down to filler. (1)

REFERENCES

(1) Minnesota Asphalt Pavement Association, Asphalt Paving Design Guide (PDF), (cited 2004)

(2) Asphalt Institute (Internet), Asphalt Industry Glossary of Terms (PDF), 2003 (cited 2004)